Reverse engineering methods

• Our experimentation with which weighted sum and how This course is designed to develop the participants' skills in the field of reverse engineering and its applications in various industrial fields and methods of raising production efficiency in industrial facilities and various organizations and the importance of raising the overall efficiency for the individual and society and the expected return them and a strategic impact on the community. adafruit. Gary King, Jennifer Pan, and Margaret E. Disassembly or teardown of a product is a major step in the Reverse Engineering process. The proposed model 3. IDA-Pro, Hex Rays Introduction to Reverse Engineering. Especially techniques like 3D scanning and rapid prototyping. While both refer to the further investigation or engineering of finished products, the methods of doing so, and the desired outcomes, are vastly different. 1 About the Course and Notes The sole purpose of these lecture notes is to provide an aid to the high school students attending the HSSP course “C-01B Reverse Engineering in Computer Applications” taught during Spring 2001 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The aim is to create object-oriented abstractions from the "Reverse Engineering Malware teaches a systematic approach to analyzing malicious code utilizing the latest and greatest tools and techniques. lu 2017: (Workshop) Reverse Engineering a MMORPG: This workshop covers the basics of reverse engineering a (M)MORPG. Share There is no generic method to deal with an obfuscated assembly. 001 Inches) This article considers popular anti-cracking and anti-reverse engineering protection techniques, namely anti-debugging methods in Windows. The most common application for reverse engineering is the reproduction, or modification, of an existing part for which there is no formal drawing. In case of damages it is required to  23 Sep 2014 PDF | In this chapter, we present methodologies and technologies for automating reverse engineering (RE) through digital imaging and  Reverse engineering is a process of analyzing a system to identify the system components and their interrelationships. Extensive destructive material tests carried out in cooperation with certified laboratories reveal exact properties of the materials and their chemical composition. Reverse engineering, also called back engineering, is the process by which a man-made object is deconstructed to reveal its designs, architecture, or to extract knowledge from the object; similar to scientific research, the only difference being that scientific research is about a natural phenomenon. – DJClayworth Jan 31 '11 at 15:52 We describe methods and software tools which aid in reverse-engineering COBOL application programs back to the specification stage (and in validating them against the specification). Roberts. DREAM, the Dialogue on Reverse Engineering Assessment and Methods, is fostering a concerted effort by computational and experimental biologists to understand the limitations and to enhance the strengths of the efforts to reverse engineer cellular networks from high‐throughput data. Identify materials-of-construction and methods-of-manufacture by observation alone; Assess the suitability of a design to purpose from form and fit; The rich heritage of engineering breakthroughs enabled by reverse engineering is also discussed. 1. In the recently published, ‘Methods to reverse engineer spare parts,’ thesis student Edoardo Colombo, from the Aalto School of Engineering, expounds on the benefits of digital spare parts, and A comparison of software architecture reverse-engineering methods can be found in [33]. To integrate material information into CAD systems, geometric features of material Chapter 1: Introduction to Reverse Engineering 5 Chapter 1 1. 3. Some even encourage it. We have used reverse engineering to provide a wide variety of services to companies in the manufacturing, automotive, aerospace, and even nuclear industries. The paper below describes an approach to setting up inexpensive and flexible laboratory environment using virtual workstation software such as VMware, and demonstrates the process of reverse engineering a trojan using a range of system monitoring tools in conjunction with a disassembler and a debugger. Prototyping and reverse engineering of stamped, machined, or fabricated parts are some value-added services we offer. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering . - [Instructor] The term reverse engineering…refers to the process of taking the database…and the database tables, and using those…to generate our mapping files and…our plain old Java objects. 5. It is always fun to tear apart a product, but nothing will be accomplished if data is not collected during the process. 6 Mar 2015 The ability to reverse engineer binaries is extremely important in many settings. Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 . What it is good for, is getting a good understanding of how a particular segment (usually a function) works. Software engineering is an engineering branch associated with development of software product using well-defined scientific principles, methods and procedures. 2002). Designed and run by a community of researchers from a variety of organizations, DREAM Challenges invite participants to propose solutions to fundamental biomedical questions — fostering collaboration and building communities in the process. Candidate 2 Methods of the Reverser. The two described ICs are good examples out of many industry-solutions and have been chosen to demonstrate how design decisions from vendors are made. Reverse Engineering Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for researchers and developers who explore the principles of a system through analysis of its structure, function, and operation. Our experienced chemists have performed deformulations on hundreds of products and have the skills and tools to successfully deformulate the most difficult materials. Let’s make a brief overview of the those applications, Apriorit researchers frequently use in their projects. As in, it will give you a good enough idea of what the code would look like in a C like language, but will not (cannot) provide fully functioning source code. Over the past few years cheap electronics have resulted in low priced measuring calipers and gauges of an accuracy good enough for many purposes. His tutorial walks through some of the most common reverse engineering methods and tools, which allow him to slowly unravel the firmware’s secrets. 30 May 2018 techniques to the practical evaluation of partial reverse (root of trust, firmware). 3 Creating and Reverse-Engineering a Datastore. Reverse engineering of software can be done using a static analysis or dynamic analysis method. You are refactoring it, or documenting it. During this chapter we Reverse Engineer an executable that attempts to locate a specific file in the system and read data from it. Sure we can de-obfuscate   Problems of reverse engineering, parameter estimation, and identifiability are In Chen and Asprey (2003), several methods for model discrimination are also  Reverse engineering (RE) is the process of taking something (a device, an electrical is not sufficient to support modifications or current manufacturing methods  23 Mar 2018 Abstract—Hardware reverse engineering is a universal tool for both legitimate we first systematically survey reverse engineering methods. It is more for "reverse engineering" in the traditional sense of the phrase. Reverse engineering Apple's secret charging methods http://www. With the easy availability of computer-aided design packages, reverse engineering technology has become a practical tool to create a 3-D virtual model of an existing physical part. Direct methods directly  2 Aug 2010 Reverse engineering Apple's secret charging methods. The Problem of Reverse Engineering A common criticism of software publishers is that their EULAs prohibit reverse engineering, decompilation, and disassembly of their software. Also known as reverse engineering, deformulation is the separation, identification and quantitation of ingredients in a formulation. Reverse engineering is used to reinvent an existing part either due to lack of original design data or financially responding to market demands. For example, the programmer writes the code in a The type of reverse engineering required will depend on the specific application and the necessary degree of precision. Methods 3. 1) OllyDbg This tool is a 32-bit assembly debugging tool for Microsoft Windows. Q-PLUS Labs provides everything from raw measurement data to parametric engineering drawings that correspond to a 3D CAD solid model. Reverse engineering, also called back engineering, is the process by which a man-made object is deconstructed to reveal its designs, architecture, or to extract knowledge from the object. In its reverse engineering process, NVision has employed multiple scanning methods to capture part geometry. Georgia Institute of Technology . Software publishers typically restrict these activities because they risk exposing, and hence losing, to the public domain, the publisher's crown jewel-the secrets The methods defined for single input cases were tested to acquire real-life results and to define their effectiveness. Reverse Engineering: Gaining an Edge. 7 Jan 2016 data acquisition methods used in reverse engineering . The activity was reverse engineering process will be usedif the original design is not supported by sufficient or adequate documentation or the original CAD model is not if to support appropriate modifications and/or standard production methods. The Learn about the process of initial reverse engineering the pinout of unknown ASICs by using moderate methods. CAD models can be used to manufacture pre-surgical models that help physicians plan for complex surgical procedures. We analyze material characteristics, surface roughness, original plating/finishing, and several other parameters prior to reverse engineering. White box and black box testing and analysis methods both attempt to understand the software, but they use different approaches depending on whether the analyst has access to source code. ADVANCED IC REVERSE ENGINEERING TECHNIQUES: IN DEPTH ANALYSIS OF A  A Reverse Engineering Role-Play to Teach Systems Engineering Methods. kent. Reverse engineering can be done where the source code is available, but the high-level details are unknown, or when the source code is not available. As we said earlier, sometimes source code is available for a reverse engineer and sometimes it is not. Reverse engineering is the process of duplicating an existing component, subassembly, or product without having the original drawings, documentation, or computer models. This method is based on the combination of  DO-178B/ED-12B defines “reverse engineering” as: The method of extracting software What are certification concerns regarding reverse engineering? Many techniques have been used in I have Reverse Engineered  7 Jul 2016 Previous methods of reverse engineering required cross section creation, followed by careful blending of curve elements. The methods used are based on a steady-state description (Tegner et al. Knowing these factors in advance can help you determine the type of reverse engineering that makes the most sense so you can get useful results and make the appropriate budget decisions. InternalCall)]. The main focus of work in the field of reverse engineering lies on the identification of genetic networks, that is, in which way transcription factors are connected to the respective genes. Information from these projects help companies accelerate their R&D efforts, resolve supply chain issues and investigate product quality challenges. Reverse engineer definition is - to disassemble and examine or analyze in detail (a product or device) to discover the concepts involved in manufacture usually in order to produce something similar. 2000; Repsilber et al. Reverse engineering is the recreation of a device that performs the same as an existing device, without knowledge of the internals. Find out how to perform low-level hardware reverse engineering & develop analysis Physical tampering techniques are composed of three main families from  While both refer to the further investigation or engineering of finished products, the methods of doing so, and the desired outcomes, are vastly different. Sometimes, reverse engineering is Reverse Engineering. Each has benefits and each has resource and time requirements. Collard, Jonathan I. It is the recommended path for creating flat file datastores. Reverse Engineering (RE) is a long-term goal of engineering and computer science; it aims at the reconstruction of CAD models  This chapter explains the customized reverse-engineering process and the strategies used in the Reverse-engineering Knowledge Modules for retrieving  Apriorit specializes in software reverse engineering and research projects, providing best quality Top 7 Methods of Data Encryption in Android Applications  Changing architectures and improvements in programming methods, including formal The reverse engineering techniques are applied to a portion of a  25 Mar 2019 Find out step by step tutorial on software reverse engineering process Special techniques can save a lot of time while reversing special types  11 Jun 2019 Reverse engineering of gene regulatory networks: a comparative study. Reverse-engineering is the process of taking a piece of software or hardware, analyzing its functions and information flow and then translating those processes into a human-readable format. When finished, he had a working copy of the Introduction Methods Results Discretizing floating point fMRI data Reverse engineering static network • Consensus networks constructed using the mean edge probabilities of the constituent methods consistently out-performed all individual methods. 2003) or on Boolean networks (D'haesseleer et al. Reverse engineering is taking apart an object to see how it works in order to duplicate or enhance the object. Michaelis-Menten coupled GRN model Reverse Engineering of Rubber Products: Concepts, Tools, and Techniques explains the principles and science behind rubber formulation development by reverse engineering methods. Namin Jeong, David W. : Perhaps the title should be "Cutting up calipers". Reverse engineering is a critical set of techniques and tools for understand- ing what software is really all about. Primarily we use a FARO arm to Reverse Engineer and Inspect parts. A No matter what your reverse engineering or measurement needs, Proto Machine Works Faro technicians can provide you with the data needed to keep you moving in the right direction. We use micro-scale images such as those from atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy to characterize a material’s structure. Applications for software reverse engineering. Since then, there has been a broad and growing body of research on Reversing techniques, software visualization, program understanding, data reverse engi- I learn something new every episode I love this podcast! It is a very rigorous investigation into reverse engineering and also pretty fun! I don't have a formal electronics or firmware background but I tinker and try to keep up with the latest in reverse engineering. I do this a lot, because the owner of the piece needs me to. The results obtained were time needed to perform the reverse engineering task, advantages and disadvantages of the procedure tested. Reverse engineering is the process of discovering the technological principles of a device, object, or system through analysis of its structure, function, and However, in reverse engineering problems such as inferring GRNs, the regulations are unknown and applying this kinetics are not straightforward. Basically, you you’re your business analysis backward from the solution to understand the data, processes, and business rules. Ed Nightingale began his research by using a reverse engineering technique, re-drawing and measuring what is actually constructed while comparing the Template model with multiple accurate Deformulation analysis of a product, also known as “chemical reverse engineering” is the process of analytically breaking down a material or product’s formulation to separate and determine the specific identity and exact quantity of both its major and minor constituent components. Rosen . comprehension to the reverse engineering process. in the engineering community came through the publication of a taxonomy on reverse engineering and design recovery concepts in IEEE Software magazine. Many older designs require our reverse engineering services because the documentation used to originally manufacture the product is no longer available or is not in a form that current manufacturing methods can utilize. When designing an object from scratch, an engineer will draw up a design specification and produce drawings from which the item The paper presents a learning activity based on a three-stage reverse engineering role-play developed to increase students’ awareness of the importance of correctly using systems engineering methods. SGS-IPS Testing’s analytical lab has personnel experienced in performing the deconstruction and analysis of paper, packaging, and consumer products (e. g. That, in turn, has made the use of 3-D CAD, computer-aided manufacturing, or other computer-aided engineering applications easier. Methodologies and Techniques for Reverse Engineering–The Potential for Automation with 3-D Laser Scanners David Page, Andreas Koschan, and Mongi Abidi, University of Tennessee, USA Abstract In this chapter, we present methodologies and technologies for automating reverse engi-neering (RE) through digital imaging and computer vision. Our experienced team of mechanical engineers & designers can help you understand your competitors’ products & assist you in developing compelling responses to their features & capabilities, or to accurately record your own past designs in a Reverse Engineering for Beginners: An online workshop teaching some of the basics of reverse engineering in the context of gaming. Formally, it is “the process of analyzing a. Posted in Reverse Engineering on September 26, 2018. What is Deformulation? A research blog regarding topics of reverse engineering, hypervisor development, Windows internals, and other assorted security research. Brown, Inc. Would the reverse engineering testing method be as successful as traditional task-based methods in uncovering usability problems? Would test participants be   Reverse engineering is broadly defined as the process of analyzing existing products to learn how to create better products in the future. Reverse Engineering (RE) is a long-term goal of engineering and computer science; it aims at the reconstruction of CAD models from measured data by means of 3D mathematical surfaces and Reverse Engineering. The methods are What would you do if you were a statistician audited by the IRS? Dr. Discovering those secrets by reverse-engineering the brain promises enormous opportunities for reproducing intelligence the way assembly lines spit out cars or computers. There are several methods that can be used while reverse engineering software. The reverse engineering (RE) technology enables us to  25 Jun 2019 One section of these techniques is reverse engineering. feminine care products, infant care products, wipes, etc. Reverse Engineering Method Stereotypes Natalia Dragan, Michael L. Reverse   Listen and learn about different reverse engineering hardware projects and methods as Alvaro (@alvaroprieto) and Jen(@rebelbotjen) talk with guests about   7 May 2009 A myriad of methods to reverse-engineer transcriptional regulatory networks have been developed in recent years. I’m a freelance electronic design engineer, and I do work for a dozen or so small manufacturers in the area. It has turned out, though, that the secrets about how living brains work may offer the best guide to engineering the artificial variety. We also offer reverse engineering design consulting to point you in the right direction. Reverse engineering is typically cost effective only if the items to be reverse engineered reflect a high investment or will be reproduced in large quantities. This article mentions the top 10 such reverse engineering tools. Emphasis is placed on methodologies and tools. In addition, we once more analyze in detail the custom algorithm used to validate that data in order to extend our skills in Reverse Engineering custom algorithms. Reverse engineering has been used to produce many mechanical parts, such as seals, O-rings, bolts and nuts, gaskets, and engine parts, and is widely used in many industries (Tut, 2010). What is reverse engineering? - Let's face it, reverse engineering is an extremely expansive topic. “Reverse-engineering censorship in China: Randomized experimentation and participant observation. Sage Bionetworks provides the expertise and infrastructure to host challenges via their Synapse platform. In such a case reverse engineering tools help to identify these techniques so that such attacks don’t take place again in the near future. A comparative analysis of existing software architecture recovery techniques is presented in [34]. Reverse engineering refers to looking at the solution to figure out how it works. Reverse engineering may also be necessary if alternative methods of obtaining technical data are more costly than the actual reverse engineering process. However, if in doubt, you should check with your fair before you follow the engineering design process instead of the scientific method. edu Abstract An approach to automatically identify the stereotypes of all the methods in an entire system is presented. It uncovers the principles behind how a product works. It's a practice taken from older industries that is now frequently used on computer hardware and software. It's not earth-shattering news that the prevalence of malicious code will continue to increase for the foreseeable future. Reverse engineering can be defined as the process of creating a CAD model of an existing product or component by capturing the components physical dimensions and surface features through various engineering approaches. has the tools and experience necessary to provide reverse engineering services for many different components, parts, and assemblies. Post by: Tobias Larsson; 6:04PM Feb 18, 2019; No Comment  25 Jun 2019 This is a more accurate method to use when trying to find a target price for a stock . Reverse Engineering Our Know-how and application of most advanced 3D measurement systems allow us to reverse engineer the most complex and high precision components. I've read some of the best stories in this thread. A typical approach uses a mixture of methods when decompiling and examining software. Many methods have been proposed through recent years leading to  31 Jan 2019 Reverse Engineering is a process by which you recreate an existing about the design concept and manufacturing methods is discovered. Although reverse engineering theories and methods, traced back to the 1980s, were predominant in the areas of software, hardware and biological systems, reverse engineering techniques are applied in different areas , , , , ranging from mechanical engineering, civil engineering, architecture, cultural heritage, to dentistry and medicine. This edited collection of essays from world-leading academic and industrial authors yields insight into all aspects of reverse engineering: • The methods of reverse engineering analysis are covered, with special emphasis on the investigation of surface and internal structures. Approaches to Reverse Engineering. Reverse Engineering Your product is entering a marketplace where you need every advantage to succeed. The three main groups of software  The term “reverse engineering” includes any activity you do to determine how a product works, or to learn the ideas and technology that were originally used to  The design models of a new product in general are created using clay models or wooden mock-ups. Submitted article  In today's industry and production systems it's important to do mechanics or measurements systems services regularly. Reverse Engineering describes the process of determining the inner workings of an engineered piece of kit (hardware or software) in the absence of design plans. . Dayton T. Reverse Engineering InternalCall Methods in . In this course we'll focus on discovering how real world objects were designed and how to Figure 2 Process of reverse engineering with different image processing methods In this section, we present the first step of the reverse engineering of materials procedure, from Figure 1. The George W. NET method, I will hit a wall because I’ll dig in far enough into the method’s implementation that I’ll reach a private method marked [MethodImpl(MethodImplOptions. Reverse genetics usually proceeds in the opposite direction of so-called forward genetic screens of classical genetics. engineering methods, often perceiving them as banal or trivial. In X-Analyser, it is possible to isolate these messages and perform various investigation methods to determine the functions of the individual signals within these messages. Due to Python's support for introspection and the fact that all objects are first-class [8], the Python interpreter must know about all currently executing objects. ➢ Computer architecture, software reverse engineering. The best method mix depends entirely on your goals. Maletic Department of Computer Science Kent State University Kent Ohio 44242 {ndragan, collard, jmaletic}@cs. 1. Reverse Engineering, Manufacturing, Materials, Processing, Imaging . When reverse engineering, if the application is using the static linking method, we as analysts can find the JNINativeMethod struct that is being passed to RegisterNatives in order to determine which subroutine in the native library is executed when the Java-declared native method is called. Important Note: Most, but not all, science fairs accept engineering projects completed using the engineering design process. It’s hard to name the best software reverse engineering tool – there quite a few of them, and each one resolves some specific task of the multistep reversing process. Blackhat USA 2015. Reverse engineering is more common than you think. Despite all its potential impacts, reverse engineering might be one of the most elusive engineering Reverse Engineering, 3D Scanning and CT Data Extraction These methods are ideal when a 3D CAD model is required and only the physical part is available. NVision in Irving, Texas, has reverse engineered many products for its customers. Although the recommended method for creating datastores in a model is reverse-engineering, it is possible to manually define datastores in a blank model. Whether analyzing malware (or writing malware…), delving into  15 Jul 2019 We've long sought to simplify the process of reverse engineering to Recover C++ Classes and Methods from Compiled Executables, which  In this paper, a new reverse engineering method is proposed for 3d surface reconstruction without contact. Few techniques in  Methodologies and Techniques for Reverse Engineering–ThePotential for Automation with 3-D Laser Scanners. Carter Braxton brings more than 25 years of experience in the reverse engineering and CAD industry to teaching and skills transfer for reverse engineering methods. EAG’s chemists have performed reverse engineering studies for hundreds of pharmaceuticals and medical devices. David Page, Andreas Koschan, and Mongi   Proven reverse engineering techniques for military aircraft/helicopter parts, aircraft fairings, outdated material replacement …Get a free quote now! 16 Nov 2017 ABSTRACT. NET Often times, when attempting to reverse engineer a particular . [17] showcased methods for reverse engineering Java memory cards’ EEPROM (erasable programmable read-only memory) data. …The default Some methods were designed for specific purposes (e. …Let's take a closer look at what reverse engineering is,…and how to set up the…reverse engineering file for Hibernate. The final project involves reversing a randomization algorithm in the game Minesweeper. Software engineering covers not only the technical aspects of building software systems, but also management issues, such as directing programming teams, scheduling, and budgeting. We should mention right at the beginning that it's impossible to completely protect software from being reverse engineered. This course will not go in-depth on any specific tool, but will serve as a more general introduction to the skills required for reversing. Amir Aczel, Professor of Statistics at Bentley college and author of the 1995 book How To Beat The IRS At Its Own Game chose to reverse engineer the IRS' secret audit selection formula (the DIF score) using quantitative methods and publish it to the world. Including reverse  Reverse engineering method stereotypes supports higher-level design recovery of object-oriented systems. We have attempted to give a unified treatment to methods from different backgrounds, clarifying their differences and similarities. Two well known reverse engineering methodologies are explored, the first by Otto and Wood and the second by Ingle. Reverse Engineering of Materials using Surfacelet-based Methods for CAD-Material Integration . The FARO arm allows us to use 2 different methods: Point Probe (+- 0. Each methodology is compared and contrasted according to the protocols and tools used. The paper presents a learning activity based on a three-stage reverse engineering role-play developed to increase students’ awareness of the importance of correctly using systems engineering methods. INTRODUCTION . This information will allow reverse engineering methods to help ascertain the functions of these CAN messages. Using static analysis, the software is evaluated without running the program. ” Science Reverse genetics is a method that is used to help understand the function of a gene by analyzing the phenotypic effects of specific engineered gene sequences. Reverse engineering, the process of taking a software program’s binary code and recreating it so as to trace it back to the original source code, is being widely used in computer hardware and software to enhance product features or fix certain bugs. Re-engineering is commonly, but incorrectly, used in reference to reverse engineering. This paper examines the reverse engineering process and what, how, and why it can assist in making a better design. The book describes the tools and analytical techniques used to discover which materials and processes were used to produce a particular vulcanized rubber compound from If so, we offer numerous reverse engineering methods and services to define parts or products. Tools for Reverse Engineering - More. com>. Carter is a product engineering executive with broad experience in military, medical device, automotive, sports and aerospace product development. Introduction 1. The activity was developed and integrated in the Systems Engineering course given at Blekinge Institute of Technology. ○ Little research has been conducted on method  20 Jan 2019 Here are some of the approaches and tools and techniques they use for reverse engineering malware, which may be helpful to you in your own  Olivier THOMAS <[email protected] It is a very common question asked, what is reverse engineering? In mechanical engineering, the term reverse engineering (often abbreviated to RE) is used to summarise the process of reconstructing an existing object. Hack. If you have the source code for something you are not reverse engineering it. com. They described forensic methods which enable researchers to locate critical data within the memory image, account for errors and eventually rebuild the original applet code that is stored in the card. ). I'm sharing with you people a very humble and simple story that is kind of related to reverse engineering. Understanding the art of reverse engineering helps a company to decide its intellectual properties should be protected by industry secrets, patents, or/and copy right. This is not a dry textbook. The Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) states that the practice of reverse engineering “starting with a finished product or process and This course is an introduction to the basic concepts of reverse engineering. , reverse engineering gene regulatory networks), while others aim at a wider range of applications. For example, you can proceed with reverse engineering if replacement parts are required and the associated technical data is either lost, destroyed, non-existent, proprietary, or incomplete. 2014. Lanet et al. This process was not  8 Mar 2017 tools to aid in reverse engineering Cocoa applications for macOS, However, due to the dynamic nature of Objective-C, methods are not  14 Oct 2016 Medical reverse engineering applications and methods Medical Reverse Engineering (MRE) is aimed to use the Reverse Engineering (RE)  8 Jan 2013 As a result, we propose a scalable time rewiring reverse-engineering method, well-suited for large data sets (Materials and Methods). Before attempting reverse engineering, a well-planned life-cycle analysis and cost/benefit analysis should be conducted to justify the reverse engineering projects. This requires a substantial amount of information be available about an object's methods and properties Reverse engineering of software can be accomplished by various methods. reverse engineering methods

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